Escalating tension between Egypt and Ethiopia over the Nile
CAIRO, March 5, 2014 — Ethiopia announced this week that it had completed 32% of the Renaissance Dam, raising serious concerns in Egypt about the water from the Nile.
According to Miskir Negash, the spokesman for the project, Ethiopia is intensifying efforts to complete the project to improve energy generation. The dam will also create 7,000 jobs initially, and more as work progresses.
In response, Egypt has organized several meetings with the European ambassadors to express its concern about the project and how it will impact Egypt’s ability to access the waters of the Nile. Egyptian authorities said that the Ethiopian dam will reduce the water flow that is Egypt’s life by at least 20%.
The NileRiver from the source of its remotest headstream – the RuvironzaRiver, southwest of LakeVictoria- measures about 4,145 miles. The Nile system gathers its waters from nine countries: Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Zaire, the Sudan, Ethiopia and Egypt.
The Nile supplies Egypt with 95% of its water. According to a report of the ministry of water resources and irrigation, Egypts water needs will increase 20% by 2020 because of population increases. Egypt’s population is estimated to reach 98.7 million by 2025.
Political analysts note that any water shortages will have a direct impact on food supply.
Christine Anderson, Associate Professor of international water law at the AmericanUniversity in Cairo in her book Climate Change , Water Governance, Law and State survival in the Arab World, wrote, “There are no remedies put in place to prevent a future food crisis”.
Last month, Egypt’s Minister of Water Abdel Moteleb traveled to Addis Ababa to relay Egypt’s concerns, but failed to resolve the issue. In a press conference, Abdel Moteleb said that Egypt is not against development in Ethiopia, but demand on the participation of international experts in the construction of the Renaissance dam. Egypt also is seeking guarantees that Ethiopia will continue to provide water to downstream countries.
Ethiopian Ministry of Water spokesperson Dina Mufti said that there is no need to include more international representatives on a panel that already has two members from Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt and four others representing the international community. Mufti added that rumors of Israeli involvement in the project were being deliberately spread by Egypt in the hope of gaining anti-dam sentiments among Arab States. Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailermariam Desalegn insists that Egypt will lose if it refers the hydroelectric dam project to international arbitration.
Egyptian concerns over the dam remain high. If the two sides continue to fail to reach an agreement, Cairo may seek international arbitration to settle the dispute.