WASHINGTON, June 9, 2015 — Terrorist attacks in cities like Paris, Copenhagen and Brussels indicate a growing threat of radical Islam in the heart of Western Europe.
About 4,000 Europeans have gone to fight with ISIS in Syria since the outbreak of war in 2011. Writing for The New Yorker, Ben Taub notes that, “The migration of youths from seemingly stable and prosperous communities to fight with radical Islamists has bewildered not only their families but governments and security forces throughout Europe.”
Militant groups in Western Europe are promoting the introduction of Sharia law not only in Syria and Iraq, but in Europe itself. One of these is Sharia4Belgium, whose mission is to transform Belgium into a state governed as the cities of Rappa, Syria and Mosul, Iraq are today. It would replace the parliament with a shura council and the prime minister with a caliph. Adulterers would be stoned and homosexuals would be executed. Non-Muslims would be converted, banished, or forced to pay jizya, a tax levied on those who don’t adhere to the faith.
Maajid Nawaz, a former Islamist recruiter who now runs Quilliam, a counter-extremist think-tank in London, says, “Typical recruitment patterns in Europe and the West tell us that it helps if that person doesn’t have a religious background.” Converts and the newly devout, he said, are “dislocated from the traditional hierarchies” of Islam, and are less likely to challenge a self-proclaimed authority on religious matters.
ISIS rule in its conquered territories is brutal. In Raqqa, Syria, women must wear a niqab, men must not have pictures on their T-shirts, smoking is banned, shops must shut for prayers, and only women can work in women’s clothing shops. Since August 2014, women need a mahram, a male companion, to go out.
Sara Birke, Middle East correspondent for The Economist, reports:
“Residents said they were terrified of the group’s horrific punishments. In a central square in Rappa, heads are posted on spikes with a sign above them indicating what transgression was involved. The square used to be called Sahat al-Naem, or paradise, but is now called Sahat al-Jaheem, or hell; the doctor I met told me she took a route to work that took three times as long just to avoid it … A former teacher from Manbij, an ISIS-controlled town northeast of Aleppo, told me, almost in disbelief, how he watched the beheading of a man who had accidentally driven into ISIS territory while smoking and then tried to claim it was not banned in Islam after being caught.”
Western Europe may be a particularly fertile field for radical Islam as it retreats from its own religious faith and tradition, leaving a vacuum in which militant Islam appeals to young people in search of spirituality and religion. As young people ask questions about the meaning of life and seek to discover a meaning and purpose for their own lives, the place once occupied by the church is, more and more, empty.
John Christy writes, “A once thriving metropolis of Christian faith, today most of Europe has become a secular society governed by the laws of humanism under the guise of naturalistic belief. … Countries such as France and Sweden are among the highest percentage of people today who explicitly deny the existence of God at 40% and 34% respectively and only 27% and 18% who still hold belief, which leaves a large population in the middle that is ambiguous.”
USA Today’s Noelle Knox reports that, “In Sweden and throughout Scandinavia, the decline of the church also has been matched by the drop in the number of marriages. There is virtually no social stigma for unmarried parents. More than half the children born in Sweden and Norway are born to unmarried mothers, the EU reports. In Denmark it’s 45%.”
According to The Wall Street Journal, “The closing of Europe’s churches reflects the rapid weakening of the (Christian) faith in Europe, a phenomenon that is painful to both worshipers and others who see religion as a unifying factor in a disparate society. By example, the Netherlands is expected to close two-thirds of its Roman Catholic Churches in the next decade.”
The Pew Research Center data highlights the degree to which the European population reports no religious affiliation: France at 28 percent; Germany, 24 percent; Italy, 12.4; Netherlands, 42.1 percent; United Kingdom, 21.3 percent. Just 51 percent of the citizens in the EU’s 27 nations said they believed in God in a 2010 survey. In Sweden, Estonia and the Czech Republic, that number fell below 20 percent.
In the 20 years up to 2010, the Evangelical Church of Germany closed 340 churches and is considering closing another thousand, according to the newsweekly Der Speigel. Dutch churches are closing at a rate of two a week. Only 4,000 remain from the estimated 19,000 built since the 13th century. The former Roman Catholic Church of St. Joseph in Arnhem, the Netherlands, has been converted into a skateboard park.
One religion in Europe is growing, and is attracting increasing numbers of young converts: Islam. On average, Muslims make up 3.8 percent of the population of the nations of the EU, according to the Pew Research Center. Pew predicts that the Muslim population of 17 Western European countries would grow from 4.5 percent in 2010 to 7.1 percent by 2030, due to immigration and a high birth rate. Most of these Muslims do not adhere to the radical Islamist view which leads to an active pursuit of converts who will engage in terrorist acts. But a small number do, and they have attracted converts in part because of the vacuum created by Europe’s abandonment of religion.
In the Western tradition, religion was always considered important. Edmund Burke declared that, “We know, and it is our pride to know, that man is by his constitution, a religious animal … We know, and what is more important, we inwardly feel that religion is the basis of civil society and the source of all good, and of all comfort.”
Benjamin Disraeli said, “The most powerful principle which governs man is the religious principle. Man was made to adore and obey.” And Francis Bacon in his “Essays on Atheism,” makes the point that, “I had rather believe all the fables in the legends and the Talmud and the Alcoran, than that this universal frame is without a mind … A little philosophy induceth men’s minds to atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men’s minds about to religion.” In G.K. Chesterton’s view, “The danger of loss of faith in God is not that one will then believe in nothing, but rather that one will believe in anything.”
As Western Europe moves away from the religious traditions which sustained it, the new generation finds itself adrift with regard to the questions religion traditionally addresses. For some, living in a materially comfortable society in which marriage is no longer the norm, in which the welfare state provides for most material needs, in which drug use is growing, will provide no challenge.
For others, however, there will be a spiritual search for the meaning of life and a desire to devote oneself to something beyond material comfort. Into this vacuum, militant Islam is ready to enter, with a religious ideology which is all encompassing and eager to welcome newcomers. Those jihadists from Belgium, France, Denmark and other European countries now fighting with ISIS in the Middle East are the tip of a larger iceberg.
Europe has largely left itself naked before its enemies. We in the United States may not be far behind.